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References in the Dissertation

Bibliographic references, depending on the location in the text, are divided into 3 types:

  • subscript, they are drawn up as a footnote at the bottom of the page;

  • intertextual, contained directly in the text of a scientific work;

  • beyond the text, they can be seen either at the end of the document, or after some section.

Depending on how many times the same source is indicated in the dissertation, references are divided into primary and repeated. If the material is used for the first time, bibliographic data are given in full. When referring to sources again, an abbreviated version is allowed.

In the case when it is necessary to indicate several references to the same information, a complex bibliographic reference is used. Its components are most often arranged in alphabetical order and separated using the punctuation mark ";", spaces must be inserted both before and after it. When a complex reference contains several sources with the same titles, then when they are used again, the following abbreviations are used: “His”, “Her”, “Them” (for English-language dissertations).

An intra-text bibliographic reference is placed directly on the page after the given data, placed in parentheses. Subscript bibliographic references are similar to footnotes and are drawn up, in practice, the same way. Through numbering is used not only for the entire document, but also for its individual elements. There is also an off-text link, which is used to indicate the source number in the list of bibliographic references, but do not confuse it with the list of references.

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Do you want to order a dissertation to avoid problems with the design of footnotes and references? Various writing companies are at your service. Experienced employees who have been writing scientific papers of any level of complexity for many years will immediately start writing a dissertation. In company, we trust this type of research only to university professors and candidates of sciences, so dissertations pass all checks without any problems and receive admission for defense. Ordering a paper means getting high quality, guarantees, success.

More resources: What Is the Difference Between PhD and Doctoral Dissertations? Structure and Content of a Doctoral Dissertation Features of Preparing a Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Science Who Appoints Dissertation Defense Opponents? The Right Choice of Official Dissertation Opponents

Karl Rockwell
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